vCloud Director 10 – NSX-T – Provider Configuration

As you may be aware vCloud Director from its inception initially was relying on vCNS and after that on NSX-V to provide on-demand , self service cloud networking capabilities and now since VMware is moving towards newly re-written networking platform called NSX-T and with every new version , it is getting mature and feature rich , vCloud Director with version 10 brings many of its capabilities in to it to offer more and more self service capabilities to tenant and ease of implementation and operation for providers, in this post i am covering how to integrate NSX-T with vCD from Provider prospective.

Pre-requisite

As you may be aware that NSX-T is no more coupled/dependent on vCenter ,so to integrate NSX-T with vCloud Director you must install and configure NSX-T Data Center. Here are the high level steps:

  • Deploy and configure the NSX-T Manager virtual appliances.
  • Create transport zones based on your networking requirements.
  • Deploy and configure Edge nodes and an Edge cluster.
  • Configure the ESXi host transport nodes, these will become PVDC resources of NSX-T based tenants.
  • Create a tier-0 gateway , this will work as “External Network” for vCloud Director.

Register NSX-T Manager

Once NSX-T setup is done, login to vCloud Director with administrator credential and  Click on “vSphere Resources” and go to NSX-T Managers to add NSX-T manager.
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Create Network Pool

A network pool is a group of undifferentiated networks that is available for use in an organization virtual datacenter to create vApp networks and certain types of organization virtual datacenter networks.
so once NSX-T manager is added , next thing is we need to create network pool and to create network pool  , go back to “Cloud Resources” , go to “Network Pools” and Click on new:
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Here is the creation of Network pool steps:
  1. Name it appropriately.
  2. Select “Geneve Backed” type Network pool
  3. Select Appropriate NSX-T Providers (you can have multiple NSX-T Providers)
  4. Select Appropriate Overlay Transport Zone
  5. review and submit.

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Configure External Networks

External networks helps providing a connection to the outside the world (internet). external networks are backed up by NSX-T Tier-0 router.

As i said in pre-requisite section , you need to manually create Tier0 in NSX-T, this T0 router will provide external network access to your tenant and should be routable from Internet. Create an Active-Active T0 with ECMP mode is recommended practice.

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Once T0 is created , you will then import T0 in to vCloud Director 10. you will also need to define IP pool , which will be used to sub-allocate IPs to Tenants.


Below is the process to create vCloud Director 10 external network by importing Tier0  router created in side NSX-T.

  1. Choose Backing Type as “NSX-T Resources (Tier-0 Router)” and select registered NSX-T
  2. Provide Name
  3. Select Tier-0 router
  4. Add a “Network Pool” with Gateway details.
  5. review and complete , which will import T0 in to vCloud Director construct.

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Create Provider VDC

Now you can create Provider VDC (PVDC) which is basically mapped to a vSphere cluster or a resource pool. PVDC to successfully work you need to ensure that vSphere cluster has been prepared with NSX-T and part of a transport zone.When creating NSX-T backed PVDC you will have to specify the Geneve Network Pool created in the previous step.

Go to “Cloud Resources” – “Provider VDCs” and Click on “NEW” to create new PVDC backed by NSX-T based networks.

  1. Name your PVDC
  2. Select vCenter which is having NSX-T backed Cluster
  3. Select appropriate Cluster and VM Hardware version
  4. Select appropriate Storage policy
  5. Select NSX-T manager and Network Pool ( as created above – Geneve backed pool )
  6. Review configuration and finish.

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if everything is configured properly, PVDC get created successfully.

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This completes vCloud Director configuration from provider prospective. In the next post i will be covering tenant onboarding process on NSX-T based Network.

 

vCloud Director 10 : VM Placement Policies

vCloud Director 10 has introduced a new concept called VM placement policies which helps Cloud Provider to control the virtual machine (VM) placement on a specific cluster or host.VM placement policies give cloud providers various options to allocate resources to various use cases like:

  1. Deploy VM’s to specific cluster based on performance requirement
  2. Deploy VM’s to Specific cluster based on resource requirements
  3. Deploy VM’s based on Licensing requirement as a part of Oracle/SQL licenses optimisation
  4. Allocate specific hosts to specific Tenants
  5. Deploy container/special use case specific VMs to a specific host/cluster
  6. Restrict elastic VDC pools to deploy VMs to a specific cluster

vCD Provider administrator create and manage VM placement policies and placement policies are created and managed for each provider VDC, because a VM placement policy is scoped at the provider VDC level.

Create a VM Placement Policy

Before we create VM Placement policies, provider need to perform few steps on vCenter , so lets go and login to vCenter which is providing resource to vCloud Director and go to Cluster -> Configure -> VM/Host Groups

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In this case i want to limit deployment of Oracle and MS SQL VM’s to specific hosts due to licensing, so let’s create Hosts groups and VM Groups:

Host Groups: 

To create Host Groups , Click on Add inside VM/Host Groups:

  1. Enter  Host Group Name
  2. Select Type as “Host Group”
  3. Click on Add to add Host/Hosts of the cluster.

2

VM Groups

To create VM Groups , Click on Add inside VM/Host Groups

  1. Enter  VM Group Name
  2. Select Type as “VM Group”
  3. Click on Add to add VM/VMs of the cluster. (select any dummy VM as of now)

3

once both the groups has been created go to VM/Host rules in the cluster and create a rule.

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VM/Host Rules

To create VM/Host Rules, Click on Add inside VM/Host Rules

  1. Enter  Rule Name
  2. Ensure “Enable rule”
  3. Select rule type as “Virtual Machine to Hosts”
  4. VM Group: Select VM Group that we have created above
  5. Here you have four choices: (In my case i have choose Must rule)
    • Must run on host in group
    • Should run on host in group
    • Must not run on host in group
    • Should not run on host in group
  6. Host Group: Select Host Group that we have created above

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From vCenter prospective we are done, we have multiple choice to create VM to Hosts affinity/anti-affinity rules , once we have created rules , vCloud director picks up only “VM Groups” which provider will expose to tenants.

Create VM Placement Policies in vCloud Director

  1. Go to Provider VDCs.
  2. Click on a provider VDC from the list , in my case it was “nsxtpvdc”
  3. Click on “VM Placement Policies”
  4. Click the VM Placement Policies tab and click New.

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New Policy Creation Wizard

  1. First Page , click on Next
    1. 7
  2. Enter a name for the VM placement policy and description and click Next
    1. 8.png
  3. Select the VM groups or logical VM groups to which you want the VM to be linked and click Next.
    1. 9.png

  4. Review the VM placement policy settings and click Finish.
    1. 10.png

Publish VM Placement Policies to Org VDC

When provider creates a VM placement policy, it is not visible to tenants. Provider need to publish a VM placement policy to an org VDC to make it available to tenants and publishing a VM placement policy to an org VDC makes the policy visible to tenants. The tenant can select the policy when they:

  • Create a new standalone VM
  • Create a VM from a template,
  • edit a VM
  • add a VM to a vApp
  • Create a vApp from a vApp template. 

To publish this newly created policy to tenants , go to:

  1. Organization VDCs and Select an organization VDC
    1. 11.png
  2. Click the VM Placement Policies tab and Click Add.
    1. 12.png
  3. Select the VM placement policies that you want to add to the organization VDC and click OK.
    1. 13.png
  4. Provider can make certain policies as “Default” when customer does not choose any policy , system will automatically use “Default”.
    1. 14.png

Policy Usage by Tenant

Once policies has been created and exposed to tenant organisation, tenant can use those policies while provisioning VMs. like here i have created two policies “Oracle” and “SQL” and tenant can choose based on workload requirement.

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NOTE –  Placement Policies are optional and a provider can continue to use the default policy that is created during installation and only one policy can be assigned to a VM.

This completes the creation of placement policies and their exposure to tenants. please feel free to share/comment.

 

 

 

vCloud Director 10 : T-Shirt Sizing

In vCloud Director 9.7 compute policies were introduced to offer/manage the T-shirt sizing of the VMs which i have covered in detail in my this post,  in vCloud Director 10 similar concept has been brought in to GUI , which is now easy to implement & manage and in vCD 10 this is being called “Sizing Policy”

So from Cloud Provider prospective VM sizing policy defines the compute resource allocation for virtual machines within an organization VDC. Sizing policy allow provider to control the following aspects of compute resources consumption at the virtual machine level:

  • Number of vCPU, vCPU clock speed, reservations, limits and shares
    • 1.png
  • Amount of memory allocated to the virtual machine , reservation, limits and shares.
    • 2.png

Create T-Shirt Sizes:

Let’s create few example T-Shirt sizing policies:

  • Policy Name – X1
    • Description: Small-size VM policy Memory: 1024 Number of vCPUs: 1
    • Name: X1
    • Memory: 1024
    • Number of vCPUs: 1
  • Policy Name – X2
    • Description: Medium-size VM policy Memory: 2048 Number of vCPUs: 2
    • Name: X2
    • Memory: 2048
    • Number of vCPUs: 2
  • Policy Name – X3
    • Description: Large-size VM policy Memory: 4096 Number of vCPUs: 4
    • Name: X3
    • Memory: 4096
    • Number of vCPUs: 4
  • Policy Name – X4
    • Description: X-Large-size VM policy Memory: 8192 Number of vCPUs: 8
    • Name: X4
    • Memory: 8192
    • Number of vCPUs: 8

Create T-Shirt Sizing policies:

  1. Cloud Provider Administrator, logins to vCloud Director and go to “VM Sizing Policies” and Click on “New” to create new policy
    • 7.png
  2. Name and describe the policy as per above example and move to Next.
    • 3.png
  3. In next section enter CPU related parameters , in this example i am choosing “vCPU Count” , providers can choose based on their requirement and leave it all blank as none of the fields are mandatory.
    • 4.png
  4. In next section enter Memory related parameters , in this example i am choosing only “Memory”, providers can choose based on their requirement and leave it all blank as none of the fields are mandatory.
    • 5.png

that’s it , so simple to create policies , follow the same step to create multiple policies as per above example.

Publish Created Policies:

vCloud Director system administrators create and manage VM sizing policies at a global level and can publish individual policies to one or more organization VDCs.

so above step we have created polices , we need to publish these policies to organisation VDC’s.

  1. Select Cloud Resources then click on Organization VDCs and go inside an organization VDC
    • 8.png
  2. Inside VDC , go to VM Sizing Policies and click on Add
    • 9.png
  3. Select the policies that you want to make available for a Particular oVDC/Tenant
    • 10.png
  4. You can set policies as default policies, which will make policy appear as the default choice for the tenants during a VM and vApp creation and VM edit.
    • 11.png

Once polices published to organisation’s VDC, when tenant user logins and try to deploy a new VM , he/she now see options to chose T-Shirt sizes with their descriptions and if user does not choose any policy , it will pickup default policy and i showed you how to setup default policy.12.png

Tag Template with T-Shirt sizes

So while cloud providers can control sizing of new virtual machines, how about Templates ?

vCloud Director helps providers to achieve this by associating  the VMs of a vApp template with specific VM sizing policies, Providers/tenant  can tag individual VMs of a vApp template with the policies you want to assign.

To Tag template to  a particular sizing policy, you need to login to org and then go to Libraries, and select vApp Templates from the left panel.

13.png

Click on particular template/highlight the template and select Tag with Compute Policies.

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“TAG WITH COMPUTE POLICIES” gives two options to tag with:

  • VM Placement Policies – which allows VM to deploy in to particular cluster.
  • VM Sizing Policy – As explained in this Post, so when user will try to deploy a VM from template, it will get deployed according to “VM Sizing Policy”

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This completes the process , gain control of your cloud offerings.

 

 

Connect AWS Transit Gateway to VMware Cloud on AWS

This post is to deploy AWS transit Gateway and connect with VMware Cloud on AWS.

AWS Transit Gateway 

AWS Transit Gateway is a service that helps customers to connect their AWS VPC and their on-premises networks to a single gateway. As customers grow the number of workloads running on Native AWS or VMware Cloud on AWS , Customer need to be able to scale your networks across multiple accounts and Amazon VPCs/VMC to keep up with the growth.

With AWS TGW, you only have to create and manage a single connection from the central gateway in to each Amazon VPC , VMware Cloud on AWS , on-premises data center or even remote office across your network. Transit Gateway acts as a hub that controls how traffic is routed among all the connected networks which act like spokes

Now to setup Transit Gateway let’s go to VPC Dashboard inside your region where you want to deploy Transit Gateway and Click on create Transit Gateway:

3.png

Enter Required details like:

  • Name & Description
  • Amazon side ASN ( in between 64512 to 65535)
  • leave other as default or select/unselect based on your requirement.

1.png

This is will create a TGW, once TGW is created, wait for few minutes , it will show “available” in AWS console.

4.png

Connect TGW to VMware Cloud on AWS

Pervious step we created TGW and to attach to VMware Cloud on AWS or any other VPC , you need to go to “Transit Gateway  Attachment” and Click on “Create Transit Gateway Attachment”

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On the new Transit Gateway Attachment page , input parameters as below:

  1. Transit Gateway ID – Choose TGW which you have created in previous step
  2. Attachment Type – VPN
  3. IP Address – get Public IP address from your VMC SDDC
  4. ASN – get ASN from your VM SDDC
  5. you can leave other things “Default” or enter based on specific requirement

7.png

Once created attachment , it will look like this:8.png

Once attachment is created , you can see it under “Site-to-Site VPN Connections” , from there follow below steps to download VPN config file:

  1. Go to Site-to-Site VPN Connections
  2. Select VPN Attachment which we created in previous step
  3. Click on “Download Configuration”
  4. Select “Generic”
  5. Click Download

9.png

Open downloaded config file and go to VMware Cloud on AWS SDDC and create a route based tunnel by input information from config file which we have downloaded in previous step.

  1. IKE Version – match in SDDC as per config file
  2. Copy the “Pre-shared Key” and paste in to SDDC “Preshared Key”
  3. Enter “Virtual Private Gateway” IP as “Remote Public IP” in side SDDC VPN config.
  4. Enter “Customer Gateway” as “BGP Local IP/Prefix Length” inside SDDC VPN config.
  5. Enter “Neighbor IP address” as “BGP Remote IP” inside SDDC VPN config.
  6. Enter “Virtual Private Gateway ASN” inside “BGP Remote ASN” inside SDDC VPN.

10.png

If every thing entered correctly , you will see , Tunnel and BGP is up and if tunnel is not up ensure Compute gateway firewall is configured appropriate as default Firewall rule for VPN in VMware cloud on AWS SDDC is “Drop”.

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So tunnel and BGP is up. you can check connectivity between a VPC attached to TGW and SDDC, this should be up if you have populated proper routes in AWS route table.

 

 

Using vCD-CLI for vCloud Director

VMware vCloud Director vCD-CLI  is a command line interface for vCloud Director using short, easy-to-remember commands to administer vCD. it also allows tenants to perform certain operations for convenience and automation.

vCD-CLI is Python based and fully open source and licensed under the Apache 2.0 license. Installation process is very easy and can be installed on various platforms .  pls check INSTALL.md, which has detailed installation instructions for Mac OS X, Linux, and Windows.

if you are using VMware’s container service extension , you need to add extension to vCD-CLI.

Installation

Here are steps which is followed for the installation on Photon OS v2 , Photon OS minimal installs lack standard tools like pip3 and even ping, so you need to install a number of packages using tdnf.

  • #tdnf install -y build-essential python3-setuptools python3-tools python3-pip python3-devel
  • 1.png
  • #pip3 install –user vcd-cli
  • 2.png
  • Set PATH  using  #PATH=$PATH:~/.local/bin
  • 3.png
  • Run #vcd (if everything goes well , you should see as below)
  • 4.png

Command Use

  • Login to vcd #vcd login cloud.corp.local system administrator –password <********> -w -i  -> this will login to vCD system.
    • 51.png
  • Let’s create a PVDC using vcd-cli , to create Provider VDC run this:
    • 7.png
    • 8.png
    • VC NAME and -t NSX-T name should be as per vCD Console
    • -r – Resource Pool – Name should be as per VC cluster name
    • -e to enable the PVDC.
    • -s – storage profile name, i am choosing all.
    • PVDC get created successfully.
    • 9.png
  • Let’s now create an organisation
    • to create an organisation run this: #vcd org create T1 Tenant1 -e
    • 10.png

so if you see this is very easy way to create object in vCD using command lines , an script can be written to automate some of the routine tasks and jobs. Refer here for more command syntax.

 

 

Upgrade NSX-T 2.3 to NSX-T 2.4

This blog is about how I upgraded my homelab from NSX-T from version 2.3 to version 2.4.First downloaded the NSX-T 2.4.x upgrade bundle (the MUB-file) from the My VMware download portal.

Checking prerequisites

before starting the upgrade , check the compatibly and ensure that the vCenter and ESXi versions are supported.

Upgrade NSX Manager Resources

In my lab the NSX-Manager VM was running with 2vCPU and 8 GB memory, with this new version minimum requirements went up to 4 vCPUS and to 16 GB of RAM.So in my case I had to shut down the NSX-T Manager and upgrade the specs to 6 vCPUs and 16 GB of memory as i was seeing 4 vCPUs were 100% getting utilised.

The Upgrade Process

Upload the MUB file to the NSX Manager1.png

After uploading the MUB file to the NSX Manager which takes some time, the file is validated and extracted which again takes little extra time. so in my Lab downloading, uploading, validating and extracting the upgrade bundle took around 40 – 50 minutes. so have patience.

Begin upgrade and accept EULA.23

After you click on “Begin Upgrade” , accept EUPA, it will throw a message , upgrade “upgrade corrdinator” , click on “Yes” and wait for some time , post “upgrade coordinator” update session will logout , login again , you will see a new upgrade interface: NOTE – Do not initiate multiple simultaneous upgrade processes for the upgrade coordinator.

4.png

Host Upgrade

Select the hosts and click on Start to start the hosts upgrade process.

5.png

While upgrade is going on continue to check you vCenter , at times ESXi host goes not go in maintenance mode due to some rule/restriction created by you , so help your ESXi server to in to maintenance mode.

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Continue to monitor the progress once done successfully , move to “Next”.

Edge Upgrade

Clicking on “NEXT” will take you to Edge section , click on “Start” and continue to monitor the progress..

8.png

very simple and straight forward process , once upgrade completed , click on “Next”

9.png

Controller Upgrade

In NSX2.4 onwards , controllers has been merged in to NSX Manager ,so no need to upgrade controller , move ahead and upgrade NSX Manager.

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NSX Manager Upgrade

upgrade of NSX Manager gives to two options:

  • Allow Transport Node connection after a single node cluster is formed.
  • Allow Transport Node connections only after three node cluster is formed.

choose option which is configured in your environment.

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Accept the upgrade notification. You can safely ignore any upgrade related errors such as, HTTP service disruption that appears at this time. These errors appear because the Management plane is rebooting during the upgrading. Wait until the reboot finishes and the services are reestablished.

You can get in to CLI, log in to the NSX Manager to verify that the services have started run: #get service When the services start, the Service state appears as running. Some of the services include, SSH, install-upgrade, and manager.

Finally after around one hour in my Lab , Manager is also get updated successfully.

12.png

so this completes the upgrade process, check the health of every NSX-T component and if everything is green , you can now go ahead and shutdown and delete the NSX controller.Hope this help you in your NSX-T upgrade planning.

 

 

 

 

Setup RabbitMQ Server on Ubuntu for vCloud Director

I am working on a Lab which require messaging queue server , so i setup this and thought of sharing the steps, so here it is..

AMQP is an open standard for message queuing that supports flexible messaging for enterprise systems. vCloud Director uses the RabbitMQ AMQP broker to provide the message bus used by extension services, object extensions, and notifications. we will be setting up this on Ubuntu System , so download Ubuntu and install it on a VM and then follow below steps

Update Ubuntu System

Before starting, you will need to update Ubuntu repository with the latest one.You can do so by running the following commands:

  • #sudo apt-get update -y
  • #sudo apt-get upgrade -y

Installing Erlang on Ubuntu

Before installing Rabbitmq, we will need to install erlang as a prerequisite of rabbitmq. You can install by running the following commands:

Once we are done with Erlang installation, we can continue with installation of RabbitMQ.

Installing RabbitMQ on Ubuntu

First we will need to add Rabbitmq repository to apt and to do that run the following command:

Once the repository has been added, Add the RabbitMQ public key to our trusted key list to avoid any warnings about unsigned packages:

Next step is to update the apt repository with the following command:

  • #sudo apt-get update

Once the repository is updated, go ahead and  install rabbitmq server by running the following command:

  • #sudo apt-get install rabbitmq-server

Once installation is complete, start the rabbitmq server and enable it to start on boot by running the following command:

  • #sudo systemctl start rabbitmq-server
  • #sudo systemctl enable rabbitmq-server

You can check the status of rabbitmq server with the following command:

  • #sudo systemctl status rabbitmq-server 

To enable RabbitMQ Management Console, run the following:

  • #sudo rabbitmq-plugins enable rabbitmq_management

Login to URL using IP address with port number 1567, here it is you have successfully installed RabbitMQ.

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Change default admin user (For security hardening)

By default the admin user for RMQ installation is guest/guest. we can change the default admin account by using below commands

  • #rabbitmqctl add_user vmware vmware  (first vmware is admin username and second vmware is password , you change it based on your requirement)
  • #rabbitmqctl set_user_tags vmware administrator (taging user with Admin priveledge)
  • #rabbitmqctl set_permissions -p / vmware “.*” “.*” “.*”
  • Now you can login with new admin user.
  • 4.png

Go ahead and configure it in your vCD instance.

5.png

This completes the installation and configuration process.

 

 

vCloud Director VM Maximum vCPU&RAM Size limits

As you know vCloud Director 9.7 comes with a default compute policy for VDC , that does provide options for custom vm sizing and this can go out of control from provides point of view as tenant can try to deploy any size of VM which might impact many things and to control this behaviour we need to limit the VM’s maximum number of vCPU and vRAM of a customer VDC can have and with vCloud Director 9.7, this is now easily can be achieved using few API calls , here is the step by step procedure to set the maximum limits:

NOTE – This gets applied on the policy like default policy which has cpuCount and memory fields as null values.

Step-1 – Create a MAX compute Policy

Let’s suppose we want to setup MAX vCPU = 32 and MAX RAM = 32 GB , so to setup this max , let’s first create a compute policy.

Procedure: Make an API call with below content to create MAX VDC compute policy:

  • POST:  https://<vcd-hostname>/cloudapi/1.0.0/vdcComputePolicies
  • Payload:  ( i kept payload short , you can create based on sample section)
    • {
      “description”:”Max sized vm policy”,
      “name”:”MAX_SIZE”,
      “memory”:32768,
      “cpuCount”:32
      }
  • Header
    • 1.png
  • Post to create compute Policy
    • 2.png

Step-2: Create a Default Policy for VDC

Publish MAX policy to VDC.

Procedure

  • Get VDC using below API Call
  • Take the entire output of above GET call and put in to body of new call with PUT as below screenshot and inside body add below line after DefaultComputePolicy element

Now if you go back and try to provision a virtual machine with more than 32GB memory , it will through the error as below:

7

Simple two API calls , will complete the much awaited feature now.

 

vCloud Director T-Shirt Sizing

Many of my customer with whom i directly interact has been asking this feature from quite some time , few of them says that T-shirt sized based offering matches of what hyper scalars offer, so with the release of vCloud Director 9.7, we can now control the resource allocation and the VM placement much better by using compute policies. As you know traditionally vCloud Director has two type of scope one is Provider VDC and another one Organisation VDC, similarly based on the scope and the function, there are two types of compute policies – provider virtual data center (VDC) compute policies and VDC compute policies.

In this post i will discusses VDC compute Policies and how you can leverage VDC compute policies to offer T-Shirt size option to your Best in class VMware vCloud director based cloud.

Provider VDC Compute Policies

Provider VDC compute policies applies to provider VDC level. A provider VDC compute policy defines VM-host affinity rules that decides the placement of tenant workloads. as you know Provider VDC level configuration is not visible to Tenant users and same applies to PVDC policies.

VDC Compute Policies

VDC compute policies control the compute characteristics of a VM at the organization VDC level and using VDC compute policies. A VDC compute policy groups attributes that define the compute resource allocation for VMs within an organization VDC. The compute resource allocation includes CPU and memory allocation, reservations, limits, and shares. here is the sample configuration:

  • {
    “description”:”2vCPU and 2 GB RAM”,
    “name”:”X2 Policy”,
    “cpuSpeed”:1000,
    “memory”:2048,
    “cpuCount”:2,
    “coresPerSocket”:1
    “memoryReservationGuarantee”:0.5,
    “cpuReservationGuarantee”:0.5,
    “cpuLimit”:1000,
    “memoryLimit”:1000,
    “cpuShares”:1000,
    “memoryShares”:1000,
    “extraConfigs”:{
    “config1″:”value1”  – Key Value Pair
    },
    “pvdcComputePolicy”:null
    }

For More detailed description of there parameters , please refer here we will going to create few policies which will reflect your cloud’s T-Shirt sizing options for your tenants/customers.

Step-1: Create VDC Compute Policy

Let’s first Create a VDC compute policy, which should be matching to your T-Shirt Sizes that you want to offer , for example here i am creating four T-shirt sizes as below:

  • X1 – 1 vCPU and 1024 MB Memory
  • X2 – 2 vCPU and 2048 MB Memory
  • X3 – 4 vCPU and 4096 MB Memory
  • X4 – 8 vCPU and 8192 MB Memory

Procedure:

Make an API call with below content to create VDC compute policy:

  • POST:  https://<vcd-hostname>/cloudapi/1.0.0/vdcComputePolicies
  • Payload:  ( i kept payload short , you can create based on sample section)
    • {
      “description”:”8vCPU & 8GB RAM”,
      “name”:”X8″,
      “memory”:8192,
      “cpuCount”:8
      }
  • Header:
    • 5.png
  • Here is my one of four API call. similarly you make other 3 calls for other three T-Shirt sizes.
    • 1.png
  • After each successful API call , you will get a return like above , here note down the “id” of each T-Shirt size policy , which we will use in subsequent steps. you can also see the compatibility of policy for VDC type.
    • X8 – “id”: “urn:vcloud:vdcComputePolicy:b209edac-10fc-455e-8cbc-2d720a67e812”
    • X4 – “id”: “urn:vcloud:vdcComputePolicy:69548b08-c9ff-411a-a7d1-f81996b9a4bf”
    • X2 – “id”: “urn:vcloud:vdcComputePolicy:c71f0a47-d3c5-49fc-9e7e-df6930660817”
    • X1 – “id”: “urn:vcloud:vdcComputePolicy:1c87f0c1-ffa4-41d8-ac5b-9ec3fab211bb”

Step-2: Get VDC Id to Assign  VDC Compute Policies

Make an API call to your vCloud Director with below content to get the VDC ID:

Procedure:

  • Get:  https://<vcd-hostname>/api/query?type=adminOrgVdc
  • Use Header as in below screenshot:
    • 6.png
  • and write down the VDC ID ( as highlighted in above screenshot in return body) , this we will use in other calls. you can also get VDC id from vCD GUI.

Step-3: Get current Compute Policies Applied to the VDC

Using VDC identifier from step2 , Get the current compute policies applied on this VDC using below API Call:

Procedure:

  • Get: https://<vcd-hostname>/api/admin/vdc/443e0c43-7a6d-43f0-9d16-9d160e651fa8/computePolicies
    • 443e0c43-7a6d-43f0-9d16-9d160e651fa8 – got from step2
  • use Header as per below image
    • 8.png
  • Since this is an Get call , so no body.
    • 7.png
  • Copy the output of this Get and paste in to a new postman window to make a new API Call as this is going to be body for the our next API call.

Step-4: Publish the T-Shirt Size Compute Policies to VDC

In this step we will publish the policies to VDC , let’s create a new API call with below content:

Procedure:

  • PUT: https://<vcd-hostname>/api/admin/vdc/443e0c43-7a6d-43f0-9d16-9d160e651fa8/computePolicies
  • Header as below image:  ensure correct “Content-Type” – application/vnd.vmware.vcloud.vdcComputePolicyReferences+xml
    • 9.png
  • Payload:
    • paste the output of step3 in the body
    • copy full line starting with <VdcComputePolicyReference ******** /> and paste number of times as your policies. in my case i have four policies , i pasted four times.
    • in each line (underline RED) replace policy identifier with identifier we captured in step1 (compute policy identifier).
    • 10.png
  • Here is API call which will associate VDC compute policies to your Tenant’s VDC.

3.png

Now go back and login to tenant portal and click on “New VM” and see under compute policy , now you can see all your compute policy which is nothing but your T-shirt size virtual machine offerings..

11

Once tenant chooses a policy , he can’t choose CPU and Memory parameters..

12

Step-5: Create a Default Policy for VDC

With Every VDC , there is default policy which is auto generated and  has empty parameters. Now since we have published our four sizing policies to this VDC, we will make one of them default policy of the VDC. This means that if user does not provide any policy during VM creation then the default policy of the vDC would be applied on the VM.

Procedure

  • Get VDC using below API Call
  • 15.png
  • Take the entire output of above GET call and put in to body of new call with PUT as below screenshot and inside body within <DefaultComputePolicy section , change the id of the Policy.
  • 16

Step-6: Delete System Default Policy

There is “System Default” policy which when selected , give options like “Pre-defined Sizing Options” and “Custom Sizing Options” , and will allow your tenants to define sizes of their choice , to restrict this , we need to un-publish this policy from VDC.

  • ab .png

Procedure

To disable this policy , follow the procedure in Step-5

  • Query VDC and copy the return Body
  • Make a PUT and inside body paste body copied in above step and remove the “system Default” policy , only keep policy , which you want to offer for this particular VDC.
  • policy_remove.png
  • After above call if you see , there is no “System Default” policy.
  • 17.png

NOTE – Ensure that non of the VM and catalogs are associated with this “System Default” policy , ideally after creation of VDC , you must create and assign policy before these policies are consumed by VM/catalogs.

Extra-Step: Update the Policy

if you want to update the policy make an “PUT” api call to policy with updated body content , see below my policy update API call for reference.

policy_update.png

I hope this helps providers now offer various T-Shirt size options to their customers.

 

 

 

 

Deploy VMware PKS – Part3

In  continuation to  my PKS installation, we are now going to install and configure the PKS Control Plane which provides a frontend API that will be used by Cloud Operators and Platform Operators to very easily interact with PKS for provisioning and managing (create, delete, list, scale up/down) Kubernetes Clusters.

Once a Kubernetes cluster has been successfully provisioned through PKS by Cloud Operations , the operators will need to  provide  the external hostname of the K8S Cluster and the Kubectl configuration file to their developers and then developers can  start consuming this newly provisioned K8s clusters and deploying applications without knowing simplicity/complexity of PKS/NSX-T.

Previous Posts of this series for your reference is here:

Download PKS

First of all download PKS from Pivotal Network , file will have extension .pivotal.

1

Installation Procedure

To import the PKS Tile, go to the home page of Ops Manager and click “Import a Product” and select the PKS package to begin the import process in to ops manager , it takes some time since this is a 4+GB appliance.

2.png

Once the PKS Tile has been successfully imported, go ahead and click on the “plus” sign to add the PKS Tile which will make it available for us to start configuring. After that, Click the orange Pivotal Container Service tile to start the configuration process.

12

Assign AZ and Networks

  • Here we will place the PKS API vm in the Management AZ and on the PKS Management Network that we have created on dvs in previous posts.
  • Choose Network which PKS API VM will use to connect to Network , in our case it is management network.
  • First time installation of PKS does not apply “Service Network” but we need to choose a network , for this installation i have created a NSX-T LS called “k8s” for Service network and i can use this in future, you can also create or specify “pks-mgmt” as this does not apply on new installation.
  • 3

Configure PKS API

  • Generate a wild card certificate for PKS API by selecting Generate RSA Certificate and create a DNS record.
  • Worker VM Max in Flight:  This makes sure how many instances of a component (non-canary worker) can start simultaneously when a cluster is created or resized. The variable defaults to 1 , which means that only one component starts at a time.
  • 4

Create Plans

Basically a plan defines a set of resource types used for deploying clusters. You can configure up to three plans in GUI. You must configure Plan 1.

  • Create multiple plans based on your needs like you can have master either 1 or 3.
  • you can choose to deploy number of worker VMs for each cluster and as per documentation worker nodes upto 200 has been tested but this number can go beyond 200 but sizing needs to be planned based on the other factors (like application and its requirement etc)
  • Availability Zone – Select one or more AZs for the Kubernetes clusters deployed by PKS for Master and same setting you need to configure for worker nodes and if you choose multiple AZ , then equal number of worker node will get deployed across AZs
  • Errand VM Type – select the size of the VM that contains the errand. The smallest instance may be sufficient, as the only errand running on this VM is the one that applies the Default Cluster App YAML configuration.
  • To allow users to create pods with privileged containers, select the Enable Privileged Containers – Use with caution because privileged containers is a container running as privileged essentially disables the security mechanisms provided by Docker and allows code to run on the underlying system.
  • Disable DenyEscalatingExec – This will disable Admission Control.
    • 56

Create Plan 2 and Plan3 or just choose Inactive and create them later but remember PKS does not support changing the number of master/etcd nodes for plans with existing deployed clusters.

Configure Kubernetes Cloud Provider (IAAS Provider)

Here you will configure your IAAS where all these VMs will get deployed and in my case this is vSphere based cloud but now PKS supports forAWS, GCP and Azure.

  • Enter vCenter Details like Name , Credentials , data store names etc..

8

Configure PKS Logging

  • Logging is optional and can be configured with vRealize Log Insight , for my Lab i am leaving it default.
  • To enable clusters to drain app logs to sinks using SYSLOG://, select the Enable Sink Resources checkbox.
  • 9

Configure Networking for Kubernetes Clusters

NSX Manager Super User Principal Identity Certificate – As per NSX-T documentation , a principal can be an NSX-T component or a third-party application such open stack or PKS. With a principal identity, a principal can use the identity name to create an object and ensure that only an entity with the same identity name can modify or delete the object (except Enterprise Admin). A principal identity can only be created or deleted using the NSX-T API. However, you can view principal identities through the NSX Manager UI.

We will have to create a user id and that user, id PKS API uses the NSX Manager superuser principal identity to communicate with NSX-T to create, delete, and modify networking resources for Kubernetes cluster nodes. Follow the steps here to create it.

  • Choose NSX-T as  Networking Interface
  • Specify NSX Manager hostname and generate the certificate as per above step.
  • 10
  • Pods IP Block ID – Here enter the UUID of the IP block to be used for Kubernetes pods. PKS allocates IP addresses for the pods when they are created in Kubernetes. every time a namespace is created in Kubernetes, a subnet from this IP block is allocated.
  • Nodes IP Block ID – Here enter the UUID of the IP block to be used for Kubernetes nodes. PKS allocates IP addresses for the nodes when they are created in Kubernetes. The node networks are created on a separate IP address space from the pod networks.
  • 11.png
  • T0 Router ID – Here enter the  T0 router UUID.
  • 12.png
  • Floating IP Pool ID – Here enter the ID that you created for load balancer VIPs. PKS uses these floating IP pool to allocate IP addresses to the load balancers created for each of the clusters. The load balancer routes the API requests to the master nodes and the data plane.
  • 13.png
  • Node DNS – Specify Node DNS Server Name , ensure Nodes are reachable to DNS servers.
  • vSphere Cluster Names – Here enter a comma-separated list of the vSphere clusters where you will deploy Kubernetes clusters. The NSX-T pre-check errand uses this field to verify that the hosts from the specified clusters are available in NSX-T
  • HTTP/HTTPS Proxy – Optional
  • 14.png

Configure User Account and Authentication (UAA)

Before users can log in and use the PKS CLI, you must configure PKS API access with UAA. You use the UAA Command Line Interface (UAAC) to target the UAA server and request an access token for the UAA admin user. If your request is successful, the UAA server returns the access token. The UAA admin access token authorizes you to make requests to the PKS API using the PKS CLI and grant cluster access to new or existing users.

  • Leaving setting default with some timer changes
  • 15

Monitoring

You can monitor kubernetes cluster and pods using VMware Wavefront , which i will be covering in a separate post.

  • For now leave it default.

Usage Data

VMware’s Customer Experience Improvement Program (CEIP) and the Pivotal Telemetry Program (Telemetry)  program.

  • choose based in your preference.

Errands

Errands are scripts that run at designated points during an installation.

  • Since we are running PKS with NSX-T , we must need to verify our NSX-T configuration.
  • 16.png

Resource Config for PKS VM

Edit resources used by the Pivotal Container Service job and if there are timeouts while accessing PKS API VM , use high resource VM Type , for this LAB i am going with Default.

  • Leave it default.
  • 17.png

Missing Stemcell

A stemcell is a versioned Operating System image wrapped with IaaS specific packaging.A typical stemcell contains a bare minimum OS skeleton with a few common utilities pre-installed, a BOSH Agent, and a few configuration files to securely configure the OS by default. For example: with vSphere, the official stemcell for Ubuntu Trusty is an approximately 500MB VMDK file.

Click on missing stemcell link which will take you to StemCell Library. Here you can see PKS requires stemcell 170.15 , since i have already downloaded thats the reason it is showing 170.25 in the deployed section but in new installation cases it will show none  deployed. Click IMPORT STEMCELL and choose a stemcell which can be downloaded from Here to import.

18.png

Apply Changes

Return to Ops Manager installation Dashboard and click on “Review Pending Changes” and finally “Apply Changes” , this will go ahead and deploy PKS API VM at your IAAS location which you have chosen while configuring PKS tile.

14.png

and if the configuration of the tile is correct , around after 30 minute , you will see a successful message that deployment has been completed , which gives very nice feeling that your hard work  and dedication resulting success (for me it failed couple of time because of storage/network and resource issues).

To identify which VM has been deployed , you can check custom attributes or go back to  the Installation Dashboard, click the PKS tile then go to the Status tab. Here we can see the IP address of our PKS API , also notice CID which is VM name in vCenter inventory. also you can see the health of the PKS VM.

1920

This completes the PKS VM deployment procedure. in the next post we will deploy kubernetes Cluster.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

vCloud Director 9.7 Portal Custom Branding

Much awaited feature for cloud provider to match thier corporate  standards and to create a fully custom cloud experience, now with release on vCloud Director 9.7 you can set the logo and the theme for your vCloud Director Service Provider Admin Portal and also now you can customize the vCloud Director Tenant Portal of each tenants . In addition, you can modify and add custom links to the two upper right menus in the vCloud Director provider and tenant portals.

Provider Portal Branding

vCloud Director 9.7 UI can be modified for the following elements:

  • Portal name
  • Portal color
  • Portal theme (vCloud Director contains two themes – default and dark.)
  • Logo & Browser icon

Customize Portal Name ,Portal Color and Portal Theme

To configure the Cloud Provider Portal Branding , make a PUT request to vCloud Director end point as below:

  • PUThttps://<vCD Url>/cloudapi/branding
  • BODY – {
    “portalName”: “string”,
    “portalColor”: “string”,
    “selectedTheme”: {
    “themeType”: “string”,
    “name”: “string”
    },
    “customLinks”: [
    {
    “name”: “string”,
    “menuItemType”: “link”,
    “url”: “string”
    }
    ]
    }
  • Headers
    • 2.png

Here is my API call using Postman client:

1.png

Customize Logo

To change the Logo, here is the procedure for API

  • Headers
    • 4.png
  • PUT
  • Body – This is bit tricky since we need to upload an image as a body.
    • In Postman client inside “Body” click on “Binary” which will allow you to choose file as body. select your logo.
    • 5.png

Customize Icon

To customize the icon, follow this API call and procedure.

  • Headers
    • 9.png
  • PUT
  • Body – same as above section , choose a image
    • 10.png

so after running above API calls , here is what my vCloud Director provider portal looks like.

678.png

Tenant Portal Branding

As we did above similarly we can now fully customize Tenant Portal

Customize Portal Name ,Portal Color and Portal Theme

To configure the Cloud Provider Portal Branding , make a PUT request to vCloud Director end point in to tenant organisation as below: ( T1 is my org Name)

  • PUThttps://<vCD Url>/cloudapi/branding/tenant/T1
  • BODY – {
    “portalName”: “string”,
    “portalColor”: “string”,
    “selectedTheme”: {
    “themeType”: “string”,
    “name”: “string”
    },
    “customLinks”: [
    {
    “name”: “string”,
    “menuItemType”: “link”,
    “url”: “string”
    }
    ]
    }
  • Headers
    • 11.png

Here is my API call using Postman client:

12.png

Customize Logo

To change the Logo, here is the procedure for API

  • Headers
    • 4.png
  • PUT
  • Body – As said above ,this is bit tricky since we need to upload an image as a body.
    • In Postman client inside “Body” click on “Binary” which will allow you to choose file as body, select your logo.
    • 14.png

Once i have done with above API calls, this is how my Tenant portal look like for “T1” organisation.

15.png

For a particular tenant, you can selectively override any combination of the portal name, background color, logo, icon, theme, and custom links. Any value that you do not set uses the corresponding system default value.

This completes feature walk through of Provider and Tenant custom branding options available now with vCD9.7.

Upgrade Postgres SQL 9 to 10 for vCloud Director

Since vCloud Director 9.7 has dropped support for Postgres SQL9.5 , so i had to upgrade my postgres to 10 , then i have updated my vCloud Director to versions 9.7 , i followed below steps to upgrade the DB , basically at High level steps are as below:

  • You need to backup the existing database and data directory.
  • Uninstall old version of Postgres SQL.
  • Install Postgres10
  • Restore Backup

Procedure

  • Create database backup using:
    • su – postgres
    • pg_dumpall > /tmp/pg9dbbackup
    • exit
    • 1
  • Check and Stop the service using
    • #chkconfig
    • #service postgresql-9.5 stop
    • 2
  • Move current data file as .old to /tmp directory using below command.
    • #mv /var/lib/pgsql/9.5/data/ /tmp/data.old
  • Uninstall 9.5 version of Postgres SQL using :
    • yum remove postgresql*
  • Install  PostgreSQL v10:
  • Initialise the database
    • service postgresql-10 initdb
    • as suggested by my friend miguel if above step is not working then use this (/usr/pgsql-10/bin/postgresql-10-setup initdb)
  • Copy the pg_hba.conf and postgresql.conf from old backed up directory to new directory , this will save some time or you can go ahead and edit existing files with required settings.
    • cp /data.old/pg_hba.conf /var/lib/pgsql/10/data/
    • cp /data.old/postgresql.conf /var/lib/pgsql/10/data/
    • service postgresql-10 start
  • Restore backup using below commands:
    • su – postgres
    • psql -d postgres -f /tmp/pg9dbbackup

you can run the reconfigure-database command and that’s it. (change your environment variable accordingly)

7.png

This will complete the database upgrade and database migration procedure.

 

 

 

Deploy VMware PKS – Part2

In this part I will begin PKS installation by deploying Pivotal Ops Manager which basically provides a management interface (UI/API) for Platform Operators to manage the complete lifecycle of both BOSH and PKS starting from install then going to patch and upgrade.

To refer other posts of this series are here:

Getting Started with VMware PKS & NSX-T

Deploy VMware PKS – Part1

In addition, you can also deploy new application services using Ops Manager Tiles like adding an Enterprise-class Container Registry like VMware Harbor which can then be configured to work with PKS.

Installing OpsManager

2.png

  • Once Downloaded , Log into vCenter using the vSphere Web Client or HTML5 Client to deploy the Ops Manager OVA.
  • Choose your Management cluster , appropriate network and other OVA deployment options , i am not going to cover OVA deployment procedure here. Only at customize template , enter below details:
    • Admin Password: A default password for the user “ubuntu”.
      • If you do not enter a password, Ops Manager will not boot up.
    • Custom hostname: The hostname for the Ops Manager VM, in My example opsmgr.corp.local.
    • DNS: One or more DNS servers for the Ops Manager VM.
    • Default Gateway: The default gateway for Ops Manager.
    • IP Address: The IP address of the Ops Manager network interface.
    • NTP Server: The IP address of one or more NTP servers for Ops Manager.
    • Netmask: The network mask for Ops Manager.1.png
  • Create a DNS entry for the IP address that you used for Ops Manager ,which we will use in next steps. use this DNS NAME/IP address and browse on a browser , which will take you to Authentication System for initial authentication setup and for our setup, i will use “Internal Authentication” for this Lab. Click on “Internal Authentication”
    • 2
  • Next, you will be prompted to create a new admin user which we will use to manage BOSH. Once you have successfully created the user, go ahead and login with the new user account
    • 3.png
  • Once you are logged into Ops Manager, you can see that the BOSH Tile is already there but is showing as un-configured (orange colour denotes un-configured) which means BOSH has not yet been deployed yet. Go ahead and click on the tile to begin the configuration to deploy BOSH.
    • 4.png

Before starting Bosh Tile configuration , we need to prepare NSX Manager, listed below procedure for:

Generating and Registering the NSX Manager Certificate for PKS

The NSX Manager CA certificate is used to authenticate PKS with NSX Manager. You create an IP-based, self-signed certificate and register it with the NSX Manager.By default, the NSX Manager includes a self-signed API certificate with its hostname as the subject and issuer. PKS Ops Manager requires strict certificate validation and expects the subject and issuer of the self-signed certificate to be either the IP address or fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the NSX Manager. That’s the reason, we need to regenerate the self-signed certificate using the FQDN of the NSX Manager in the subject and issuer field and then register the certificate with the NSX Manager using the NSX API.

  • Create a file for the certificate request parameters named “nsx-cert.cnf” in a linux VM where openssl tool is installed.
  • Write below content in to the file which we create in above step.
    • 3.png
  • Export the NSX_MANAGER_IP_ADDRESS and NSX_MANAGER_COMMONNAME environment variables using the IP address of your NSX Manager and the FQDN of the NSX Manager host.
    • 4.png
  • Using openssl tool generate the certificate by running below command:
    • 56
  • Verify the certificate by running command as below:
    • ~$ openssl x509 -in nsx.crt -text -noout and ensure SAN has DNS name and IP addresses.
    • 7.png
  • Import this Certificate in NSX Manager , go to System -> Trust -> Certificates and click on Import -> Import Certificate
    • 8.png
  • Ensure that Certificate looks like this in your NSX Manager.
    • 9.png
  • Next is to Register the certificate with NSX Manager using below procedure , first the ID of the certificate from gui.
    • 10.png
  • Run the below command (in to your API client ) to register the certificate using below command replace “CERTIFICATE-ID” with your certificate ID.

Now let’s configure BOSH tile , which will deploy BOSH based on our input parameters.

Configure BOSH Tile to Deploy BOSH Director

Click on the tile. It will open the tile’s setting tab with the vCenter Config parameters page.

  • vCenter Config 
    • Name: a unique meaning full name
    • vCenter Host: The hostname of the vCenter.
    • vCenter Username: Username for above VC with create and delete privileges for virtual machines (VMs) and folders.
    • vCenter Password: the password of above VC.
    • Datacenter Name: Exact name of data center object in vCenter
    • Virtual Disk Type: Select “Thin” or “Thick”
    • Ephemeral Datastore Names: The names of the data stores that store ephemeral VM disks deployed by Ops Manager , you can specify many data stores by using comma.
    • Persistent Datastore Names (comma delimited): The names of the datastores that store persistent VM disks deployed by Ops Manager.
    • To deploy BOSH as well as the PKS Control Plane VMs, Ops Manager will go ahead and upload a Stemcell VM ( A VM Template that PKS) and it will clone from that image for both PKS Management VMs as well as base K8S VMs.
    • 11
  • NSX-T Config 
    • Choose NSX Networking and Select NSX-T 
    • NSX Address: IP/DNS Name for NSX-T Manager.
    • NSX Username and NSX Password: NSX-T credential
    • NSX CA Cert: Open the NSX CA Cert that you generated in above section and copy/paste its content to this field.
    • 12.png
  •  Other Config
    • VM Folder: The vSphere datacenter folder where Ops Manager places VMs.
    • Template Folder: The vSphere folder where Ops Manager places stemcells(templates).
    • Disk path Folder: The vSphere datastore folder where Ops Manager creates attached disk images. You must not nest this folder.
    • And Click on “Save”.
    • 13
  • Director Config
    • For Director config , i have put in few details like:
      • NTP Server Details
      • Enable VM Resurrector Plugin
      • Enable Post Deploy Scripts
      • Recreate all VMs (optional)
    • 14
  • Availability Zone    
    • Availability zones are defined at a vSphere Cluster level. These AZs will then be used by BOSH director to determine where to deploy the PKS Management VMs as well as the Kubernetes VMs.Multiple Availability Zones allow you to provide high-availability across data centers. for this demonstration i have created two AZs, one for Management and one for my Compute.15.png
  • Create Network
    • Since i am using dvs for my PKS management component , we need to specify those details in to this segment and make sure you select the Management AZ which is the vSphere Cluster where BOSH and PKS Control Plane VM will be deployed.

16

  • Assign AZs and Networks 
    • In this section,  Define the AZ and networking placement settings for the PKS Management VM.Singleton Availability Zone – The Ops Manager Director installs in this Availability Zone.

17

  • Security & Syslog
    • This section i am leaving default , if required for your deployment , pls refer documentation.
  • Resource Config
    • As per in part 1 sizing , the BOSH director vm by default allocates 2 vCPUs, 8GB memory, 64GB disk and also has a persistent disk of 50GB and Each of the four Compilation VMs uses 4 vCPUs, 4GB memory, 16GB disk each. For my lab deployment i have changed it to suite to my lab resources.Bosh director needs minimum of 8 GB Memory to run , so choose options accordingly.

18.png

  • Review Pending Changes and Apply Changes 
    • With all the input completed, return to the Installation Dashboard view by clicking Installation Dashboard at the top of the window. The BOSH Director tile will now have a green bar indicating all the required parameters have been entered. Next we click REVIEW PENDING CHANGES and Apply Changes

22

  • Monitor Installation and Finish
    • 8.png
    • If all the inputs are right then you will see that your installation is successful

9.png

After you login to your vCenter , you will see a new powered on VM in your  inventory that starts with vm-UUID which is the BOSH VM. Ops Manager uses vSphere Custom Attributes to add additional metadata fields to identify the various VMs it can deploy, you can check what type of VM this is by simply looking at the deployment, instance_group or job property. In this case, we can see its been noted as p-bosh.

24.png

and this completes Ops Manager and BOSH deployment , next post we will install PKS tile.

 

 

Deploy VMware PKS – Part1

In Continuation of my previous blog post here , where i have explained PKS component and sizing details , in this post i will be covering PKS component deployment.

Previous Post in this Series:

Getting Started with VMware PKS & NSX-T

Pre-requisite:

  • Install a New or Existing server which has DNS role installed and configured , which we will use in this deployment.
  • Install vCenter and ESXi , for this Lab i have created two vSphere Cluster:
    • Management Cluster + Edge Cluster – Three Nodes
    • Compute Cluster – Two Nodes
  • Create a Ubuntu server , where you will need to install client utilities like:
    • PKS CLI
      • The PKS CLI is used to create, manage, and delete Kubernetes clusters.
    • KUBECTL
      • To deploy workloads/applications to a Kubernetes cluster created using the PKS CLI, use the Kubernetes CLI called “kubectl“.
    • UAAC
      • To manage users in Pivotal Container Service (PKS) with User Account and Authentication (UAA). Create and manage users in UAA with the UAA Command Line Interface (UAAC).

    • BOSH
      • BOSH CLI used to manage PKS management components deployments and provides information about the VMs using its Cloud Provider Interface (CPI) which is vSphere in my Lab and could be AZURE , AWS and GCP also.
    • OM
      • Bosh Operations Manager command line interface.
  • Prepare NSX-T

    For this Deployment make sure NSX-T is deployed and configured, high level steps are as below:

    • Install NSX Manager
    • Deploy NSX Controllers
    • Register Controllers with Managers as well as other controller with Master controller.
    • Deploy NSX Edge Nodes

    • Register NSX Edge Nodes with NSX Manager

    • Enable Repository Service on NSX Manager

    • Create TEP IP Pool

    • Create Overlay Transport Zone

    • Create VLAN Transport Zone

    • Create Edge Transport Nodes

    • Create Edge Cluster

    • Create T0 Logical Router and configure BGP routing with physical device

    • Configure Edge Nodes for HA

    • Prepare ESXi Servers for the PKS Compute Cluster

My PKS deployment topology is look like below:

8.png

  • PKS Deployment Topology – PKS management stack running out of NSX-T
    • PKS VMs (Ops Manager, BOSH, PKS Control Plane, Harbor) are deployed to a VDS backed portgroup
    • Connectivity between PKS VMs, K8S Cluster Management and T0 Router is through a physical router
    • NAT is only configured on T0 to provide POD networks access to associated K8S Cluster Namespace
  • Create a IP Pool
    • Create a new IP Pool which will be used to allocate Virtual IPs for the exposed K8S Services The network also provides IP addresses for Kubernetes API access. Go to Inventory->Groups->IP Pool and enter the following configuration:
      • Name: PKS-FLOATING-POOL
      • IP Range: 172.26.0.100 – 172.26.255.254
      • CIDR: 172.26.0.0/16
    • 5.png
  • Create POD-IP-BLOCK
    • We need to create a new POD IP Block which will by used by PKS on-demand to create smaller /24 networks and assigned those to each K8S namespace. This IP block should be sized sufficiently to ensure that you do not run out of addresses. To create POD-IP-BLOCK , go to NETWORKING->IPAM and enter the following:
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  •  Create NODEs-IP-BLOCK
    • We need to create new NODEs IP Block which will be used by PKS to assign IP address to Kubernetes master and worker nodes.Each Kubernetes cluster owns the /24 subnet , so to deploy multiple Kubernetes clusters, plan for larger than /24 subnet. (recommendation is /16)
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Prepare Client VM

  • Create and install a small Ubuntu VM with default configuration. you can use the latest server version and insure that the VM has internet connectivity either by proxy or direct.
  • Once the Ubuntu VM is ready , download PKSCLI and KUBECTL from https://network.pivotal.io/products/pivotal-container-service

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and copy both the PKS (pks-linux-amd64-1.3.0-build.126 or latest) and Kubectl                      (kubectl-linux-amd64-1.12.4 or latest) CLI to VM.

  • Now SSH to the Ubuntu VM and run the following commands to make binaries executable and renaming/relocating them to /usr/local/bin directory:
    • chmod +x pks-linux-amd64-1.3.0-build.126
    • chmod +x kubectl-linux-amd64-1.12.4
    • mv pks-linux-amd64-1.3.0-build.126 /usr/local/bin/pks
    • mv kubectl-linux-amd64-1.12.4 /usr/local/bin/kubectl
    • Check version using – pks -v and kubectl version
  • Next is to install Cloud Foundry UAAC , run this command
    • apt -y install ruby ruby-dev gcc build-essential g++
    • gem install cf-uaac
    • Check version using – uaac -v
  • Next is to install
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This completes this part , in the next part we will start deploying PKS management VMs and their configuration.

 

VMware Container Service Extension Upgrade

With the release of new Container Service Extension (CSE) version 1.2.7 due to vulnerability related to docker (CVE-2019-5736 ) for both Ubuntu and Photon OS templates , it is very important to update the CSE ASAP , here is the procedure to help you to upgrade the CSE easily.

Pre-requisite:

  • Check the release notes Here for version compatibility.

Upgrade procedure for Cloud Admins:

  • Update CSE to 1.2.7 ( follow procedure below)
  • Update the templates (follow procedure below)

Upgrading CSE Server Software

  •  Stop CSE Server services gracefully.
    • #vcd cse system stop -y
    • 2.png
  • Reinstall container-service-extension using Python Package Index:
    • #pip3 install –user –upgrade container-service-extension
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  • Review the configuration file for any new options introduced or deprecated in the new version. cse sample  can be used to generate a new sample config file as well.
    • 3.png
    • Follow the steps listed here , to edit your environment variable for CSE to use.
  • If the previously generated templates are no longer supported by the new version, delete the templates and re-generate new ones using below command.
    • cse install -c mysample.yaml –update
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  • If running CSE as a service, start the new version of the service with
    • $systemctl start cse
    • 4.png

Upgrade procedure for Tenant Users:

  • Delete clusters that were created with older templates. Recreate clusters with new templates
  • Alternatively, tenant-users can update docker version manually on their existing clusters.

This completes the upgrade procedure , go ahead and let the customer consume Kubernetes as a Service from your platform.

VMware CSE Upgrade Error – Missing keys in config file ‘service’ section: {‘enforce_authorization’}

Trying to upgrade CSE to latest version of CSE 1.2.7 and during upgrade process facing error , like this: Missing keys in config file ‘service’ section: {‘enforce_authorization’}

error.png

with this new release there are many new options has been added in to configuration file considering PKS integration , so to resolve this issue , there are two options:

  • Create a new sample config.yaml file using command:
    • cse sample > myconfig.yaml  – and reconfigure it.
  • If don’t need PKS integration as of now and edit the existing config.yaml file and add “enforce_authorization: false” in to service section
    • 7.png

and once you done the changes , re-run the command and it should now successfully complete the process.

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this new process has not been documented properly in the CSE git page 🙂

 

VMware Container Service Extension Installation – Part-1

In continuation of my last post on Kubernetes as a service on vCloud Director , here is the next post on installation of Container Server Extension on vCloud Director.

This post applies to CSE version 1.2.5

CSE Installation

This installation procedure applies to Client VM as well as CSE Server VM. For this installation i will leverage a Photon OS 2.0 VM based on the official OVA which is available here. deploy OVA following the standard OVA deployment procedure.Once deployed, make sure you configure static IP and configure networking correctly based on your environment and ensure that this machine can reach to internet to download necessary binaries.

Configure Static IP on Photon OS

Edit file 99-dhcp-en.network inside directory /etc/systemd/network  and change as below.

IP.png

By default ping is disabled on this , so open firewall using below commands:

fw.png

Now Install Python related binaries using below command:

root@photon-machine [ ~ ]# tdnf install -y build-essential python3-setuptools python3-tools python3-pip python3-devel

root@photon-machine [ ~ ]# pip3 install –upgrade pip (double dash –)

Install CSE Software:

Now install and verify the installation CSE:

root@photon-machine [ ~ ]# pip3 install container-service-extension

version.png

This completes installation of CSE , now we need to enable CSE client on this VM.

Enable CSE Client:

Go and edit ~/.vcd-cli/profiles.yaml  file to include this section: (exactly like in Image)

yaml.png

vCD Prerequisites:

There are many important requirements that must be fulfilled to install CSE successfully on vCD.

  • Catalog Organization creation:
  • Create a VDC within the org that has an external org network in which vApps may be instantiated and sufficient storage to create vApps and publish them as templates. The external network connection is required to enable template VMs to download packages during configuration. The process as follows:
    • CSE server will upload base OS image to vCloud Director in a CSE Catalog
    • CSE server will deploy the template as a VM on a Org VDC Network that requires internet access and will download and install required kubernetes and docker binaries.
    • CSE will then validate the VM and capture as vApp template and add it back to the CSE Catalog as a valid item for deploying container hosts.
  • Create a user in the org with privileges necessary to perform operations like configuring AMQP, creating public catalog entries, and managing vApps.
  • A good network connection from the host running CSE installation to vCD as well as the Internet. This avoids intermittent failures in OVA upload/download operations.

CSE Server Config File:

The CSE server is controlled by a yaml configuration file that must be filled out prior to installation. Once vCD pre-requisites are ready,  You can generate a sample file using below command:

#cse sample > config.yaml  ( cse sample generates sample config yaml)

Run above command on above VM which we have prepared for our CSE server , This file is having five sections , which i am going to cover one by one.

AMQP Section:

  • During CSE Server installation, CSE will configure AMQP to ensure communication between vCD and the running CSE server. if vCD has already been configured then skip this section while running install command , if vCD has not been configured with AMQP configuration then enter information in this section which will automatically go and configure this for you in vCD. Configure this section as described below:

 

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vCD Section:

  • This section is self explanatory , you need to specify vCD related details (ensure API version is related to vCD version):

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vCS Section:

  • In this section provide vCenter information like VC name and credential.

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 Service Section:

  • The service section specifies the number of threads to run in the CSE server process.

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Broker Section:

  • The broker section contains properties to define resources used by the CSE server including org and VDC as well as template definitions. The following Image summarise key parameters. More Details can be found here

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  • Sample Config.yaml file can be downloaded from config.

CSE SERVER INSTALLATION:

  • Once your are ready with file run CSE install command to start the installation. ( as said earlier we need to create a VM on which CSE server must be installed by the vCloud Director System/Cloud Administrator.The CSE appliance must be reachable to vCenter , vCD and AMQP servers. i am installing on the VM which i have prepared in first section)
  • #cse install -c config.yaml –ssh-key=$HOME/.ssh/id_rsa.pub –ext config -amqp skip
  • I am skipping amqp configuration as “AMQP” is already configured in my vCD.

14.png

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  • it failed due to some issue , so i have to rerun the command after fixing the issue and same can be done multiple times.

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  • Once installation is completed , check the installation status using:
  • #cse check –config config.yaml –check-install

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  • Now to validate that CSE has been registered in vCD Use “vcd-cli” command line, check that the extension has been registered in vCD:

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Running CSE Server as a Service:

  • create a file named “cse.sh”  inside directory /home/vmware with following content:
    • 7.png
  • create file name cse.service inside directory /etc/systemd/system with following content:
    • 6.png
  • Once installed you can start the CSE service daemon using #systemctl start cse . To enable, disable, and stop the CSE service, use CSE client.
    • 23.png

Setting the API Extension Timeout

  • The API extension timeout is the number of seconds that vCD waits for a response from the CSE server extension. The default value is 10 seconds, which may be too short for some environments. To change the time follow the steps :

    • On the vCloud Director cell run:

    • Go to Cd /opt/vmware/vcloud-director/bin and run below commands -l to list -v to Set.2122

Enable CSE

  • Login to vCD and enable the CSE using below commands…

8.png

This completes the installation of Container Server Extension and allow providers to offer Kubernetes as a Service to their customers. feel free to share your experience on this installation.

What is VMware Cloud Provider Pod

There are lots of partners looking for a solution which can automate the entire deployment of vCD based cloud once racking , stacking and cabling is done for their infrastructure that is where VMware Cloud Provider Pod helps…Basically Cloud Provider Pod automate the deployment of VMware-based clouds. A Cloud Provider Pod-deployed stack adheres to VMware Validated Design principles and is thoroughly tested for interoperability and performance. It is also tested for cloud-scale and is built to handle rigorous Cloud Provider workloads. It deploys technologies with core provider capabilities such as data center extension, cloud migration, and multi-tenancy and chargeback, and helps achieve the fastest path to VMware-based cloud services delivery. Cloud provider POD help cloud providers time to market and help in improving service delivery.

Features:

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Cloud Provider Pod 1.1 : Supported Interoperable Version for Deployment

vSphere 6.7u1
vSAN 6.7u1
NSX 6.4.4
vCloud Director Extender 1.1.0.2
vRealize Orchestrator 7.5
vRealize Operations 7.0, including Multi-Tenant App 2.0
vRops – Cloud Pod Management Pack
vRealize Log Insight 4.7
vRealize Network Insight 4.0
Usage Meter 3.6.1

POD Designer walk through

The Cloud Provider Pod Designer offers Providers the choice to start with a VMware Validated Design (CONFIGURE YOUR CLOUD) or the Advanced Design which is custom designer based on your environment specific requirement not as per VMware validated design.

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The main difference between the VMware Validated Design and the Advanced Configuration modes is that you can choose to use NFS, iSCSI or Fibre Channel as your storage options. The setup of BGP AS and other options is also not required, but can be done.VVD designer start with asking basic details about your cloud environment that you want to build , Click on “Configure Your Cloud” which will take you to below screen where you need to fill in “General Parameters”

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Next will take you the screen where you need to choose optional packages that you want to add/exclude from your deployment.

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Next will take you to Resource cluster selection , where you need to choose how many resource cluster your deployment will have and within that resource cluster how many host that you would have.

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In the next screen , Enter your environment variable like DNS ,NTP  etc…

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Enter your Management Cluster’s Networking and public facing ip addressing in “External/DMZ IP Assignment” and in MAC Addresses , you can add the MAC addresses for the hosts during the Cloud Provider Pod Designer workflow, or later during the deployment workflow. The number of available MAC addresses text boxes depends on how many hosts have been configured on the Sizing page

10.png

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Enter your resource cluster details like VXLAN Segment etc…

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Choose Hypervisor’s NIC allocation.

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Enter License Keys now or post deployment also licenses can be assigned.

15.png

“Generate all Documentation Files”  –  This is very important and all the providers will like it , it basically automate the creation of design document and configuration work book of your environment , which was the biggest pain where Architects/consultants used to spend lots of time writing design document with visio’s etc.. this is all automatically get generated using CPod.

16.png

Once you click on “Generate Configuration” , it will generate your deployment bundle and documentation and email it to you then you can use “Cloud Provider Pod Deployer” to start the deployment. here is overall flow of the entire process

18.png

Cloud Provider Pod Deployer

Use Cloud provider deployer to deploy entire infrastructure on a click of a button. Detailed documentation and step-by-step instructions on how to use the Cloud Provider Pod Deployer to create a new environment are available in the Cloud Provider Operations guide. This guide is delivered by the Cloud Provider Pod Designer as part of generated documentation by an Email , which you registered at the start of designer.

Deployer Video is here for your reference – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5xOiToL2o94&feature=youtu.be&list=PLunwH0gjkUBi7Mu18nNXxUl6FgzpU3iyd

 

 

Kubernetes-as-a-Service on vCloud Director

VMware’s Container Service Extension (CSE)  on vCloud Director is a VMware vCloud Director extension that helps Cloud Providers to Offer Kubernetes-as-a-Service to their tenants , who can easily create and work with Kubernetes clusters. basically it means  using CSE a Service Provider can offer compute resources to tenants secured through a multi-tenant IaaS vCloud Director deployment , and tenants/end users will have the ability to deploy & manage their kubernetes clusters from a self service portal

CSE brings Kubernetes-as-a-service to vCD by creating customized VM templates and enabling tenant/organization administrators to deploy fully functional Kubernetes clusters in self-contained vApps.

CSE Components:

  • CSE Client

    • Tenant Organization Administrators and users can use CSE client to handle Kubernetes cluster management. This includes deploying clusters, adding worker nodes, configuring NFS storage etc…
    • CSE client running on a Virtual Machine runs as an extension of vcd-cli which leverages CSE/vCD public API to manage and administer the service.
    • CSE Client which is extension of  vcd-cli offers easy way to manage life cycle of the kubernetes cluster by the Tenant.
    • From this VM CSE commands are getting issued to vCloud Director , which takes these instructions using AMQP message bus to CSE server.
  • vCloud Director Based Cloud

    • Service Provider’s cloud administrators will setup vCD, Org Network , catalog etc.
    • vCD will be the platform which will provider compute , network , security and multi-tenancy on which kubernetes clusters will be deployed.
    • CSE will use vCloud Directors Extensibility framework to deploy Kubernetes cluster , kubernetes cluster scaling operations like scale up/down , scale In/out etc..
  • CSE Server

    • Service Provider’s cloud administrators will setup CSE config file, CSE Server, and VM templates.
    • You install CSE Server on a new VM and it works in conjunction with vCD extensibility framework.
    • CSE automatically downloads and installs required binaries like Kubernetes , docker , weave etc on a template.
    • Handles CSE Client request for creation and deletion of K8s Cluster and nodes.

User Accessibility of Kubernetes cluster

  • Kubectl

    • Developers and other Kubernetes users interact with CSE Kubernetes clusters using kubernetes native “Kubectl” command line tool, For any tenant  users, Kubernetes clusters work like any other Kubernetes cluster implementation. No special knowledge of vCloud Director or CSE administration is required. Such users do not even need a vCloud Director account.

Below figure clearly lists out the required component and their owners , this picture and more details can be accessed from here

1.png

Installation Type:

Installation Type dependent on the type of the user as stated in above figure:

Kubernetes User – Install Kubectl on your laptop/desktop.

Tenant Administrator – Install CSE and configure CSE Client on a VM.

Service Provider – Install CSE , Install Messaging Bus , configure and register with vCloud Director.

In the Next series of posts i will be covering installation and configuration of CSE.

Whats new with VMware PKS v1.3

Last week VMware announced release of PKS 1.3 , which has some of the much awaited features  like enhance multi-cloud support, additional networking and security options, ease of management and operations. Few features i am going to discusses here:

Microsoft Azure support as IAAS

VMware PKS already support VMware vSphere , Google Cloud Platform and Amazon EC2 as supported platform for PKS deployment , in this new VMware PKS 1.3 release introduces support for Microsoft Azure. so now you can deploy production grade kubernetes from a single console to your choice of IAAS. Here is the list of features supported by PKS on different IAAS.

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Kubernetes 1.12 Support

if you see kubernetes 1.12 release notes around 60+ enhancement and features has been introduced so it make all the sense to upgrade to Kubernetes 1.12.4.

Backup and Recovery of Kubernetes Clusters

This release supports backup and recovery of Kubernetes clusters when they are deployed in a single master mode. You can recover Kubernetes clusters and stateless workloads by using the BOSH Backup and Restore (BBR) toolset.

Smoke Tests

Smoke tests let you assess the impact of an upgrade before actually upgrading running clusters.The smoke tests create an ephemeral Kubernetes cluster after each upgrade of VMware PKS, but before applying upgrades to running Kubernetes clusters. This ensures that a test cluster can be provisioned and basic Kubernetes functionality validated with the upgraded software before applying the upgrade to the running clusters. Upon successful completion of the smoke test, the test cluster is deprovisioned to reduce resource consumption, and upgrades then proceed on the running clusters.

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Support for Multiple Tier 0 and Selectable Tier 0 Routers

As you know NSX-T Tier 0 edges connects the physical and virtual networks. A single VMware NSX-T instance can support multiple Tier 0 routers. By deploying Kubernetes clusters across multiple Tier 0 routers service providers get better network isolation between tenants and additionally  service providers can use multiple Tier 0 routers which allows them to use overlapping IP address ranges, providing greater autonomy to tenants in choosing IP address ranges for their services.

With this VMware PKS 1.3 release, now provider/customer can specify a Tier 0 router using the network profile when you create a cluster (pks create cluster). The Kubernetes clusters and all networking objects that are created or configured as part of the cluster such as a load balancer, Tier 1 routers, and SNAT rules are created on this Tier 0 router. Given that a single Tier 0 router can support a finite set of such networking objects, use of multiple Tier 0 routers allows much greater scale.

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Support for Larger Load Balancers

Previous versions of VMware PKS, we can only specify small or medium load balancers. now with VMware PKS 1.3 , it adds support for large load balancers. large load balancers provides higher scale in areas like number of services, number of backend pods per service, and throughput per service.

Routable CIDR blocks for Pod Networks

Routable IP addresses assigned to pods provide traceability of workloads making egress requests. also routable IP addresses provide direct ingress access to pods for some of the specialized workloads. With VMware PKS 1.3, at the time of Kubernetes cluster creation, you can specify whether you need the pods to be routable or non-routable (NAT’ed) by using the network profile.

Specific IP Address Range and Subnet Size for Pod IP Addresses

VMware PKS 1.3 allow you to override the global pod IP address block configured for VMware PKS with a custom IP address block range along with a custom subnet size. This feature helps in where your global IP address range for pods is reaching capacity and you need to deploy new Kubernetes clusters or you need a larger or smaller size subnet for each namespace being created within a cluster.

Multiple VMware PKS Control Planes across a Single NSX-T Instance

With this new release, multiple instances of VMware PKS can be deployed on a single shared NSX-T instance. Each instance of the VMware PKS control plane can be deployed on a dedicated NSX-T Tier 0 router to provide complete end-to-end isolation. With this feature, users can dedicate separate VMware PKS instances to their development, staging, and production environments or cloud provider can offer dedicated PKS as a Service to their customer.

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Harbor 1.7

Harbor is an VMware’s contribution to open source community , Harbor is open source cloud native registry that stores, signs, and scans container images for vulnerabilities. Harbor solves common challenges by delivering trust, compliance, performance, and interoperability. with PKS 1.3 , Harbor 1.7 has been shipped and offers below enhancements like:

  • Support deploy Harbor with Helm Chart, enables the user to have high availability of Harbor services.
  • Support on-demand Garbage Collection, enables the admin to configure run docker registry garbage collection manually or automatically with a cron schedule.
  • Support Image Retag, enables the user to tag image to different repositories and projects, this is particularly useful in cases when images need to be retagged programmatically in a CI pipeline.
  • Support Image Build History, makes it easy to see the contents of a container image.
  • Improve user experience of Helm Chart Repository:
    • Chart searching included in the global search results
    • Show chart versions total number in the chart list
    • Mark labels to helm charts
    • The chart can be deleted by deleting all the versions under it

Monitoring with vRealize Operation Manager

With the integration of cAdvisor, vRops can be used to monitor entire cloud native infrastructure with the help of vRops Management Pack for Containers.

Sinks

Sink resources include both pod logs as well as events from the Kubernetes API. These events are combined in a shared format that provides operators with a robust set of filtering and monitoring options. Now inbuilt Support for creating sink resources with the PKS Command Line Interface.

Workers Scale up and down

with this version kubernetes cluster’s worker node can easily be scaled up and down with a single command like:

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These are the some of the important features which i like to share , for details feature list check Release note here.